Augustine/The City of God/Book XII
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Argument—Augustin first institutes two inquiries regarding the angels; namely, whence is there in some a good, and in others an evil will? and, what is the reason of the blessedness of the good, and the misery of the evil? Afterwards he treats of the creation of man, and teaches that he is not from eternity, but was created, and by none other than God.
- That the Nature of the Angels, Both Good and Bad, is One and the Same.
- That There is No Entity Contrary to the Divine, Because Nonentity Seems to Be that Which is Wholly Opposite to Him Who Supremely and Always is.
- That the Enemies of God are So, Not by Nature, But by Will, Which, as It Injures Them, Injures a Good Nature; For If Vice Does Not Injure, It is Not Vice.
- Of the Nature of Irrational and Lifeless Creatures, Which in Their Own Kind and Order Do Not Mar the Beauty of the Universe.
- That in All Natures, of Every Kind and Rank, God is Glorified.
- What the Cause of the Blessedness of the Good Angels Is, and What the Cause of the Misery of the Wicked.
- That We Ought Not to Expect to Find Any Efficient Cause of the Evil Will.
- Of the Misdirected Love Whereby the Will Fell Away from the Immutable to the Mutable Good.
- Whether the Angels, Besides Receiving from God Their Nature, Received from Him Also Their Good Will by the Holy Spirit Imbuing Them with Love.
- Of the Falseness of the History Which Allots Many Thousand Years to the World’s Past.
- Of Those Who Suppose that This World Indeed is Not Eternal, But that Either There are Numberless Worlds, or that One and the Same World is Perpetually Resolved into Its Elements, and Renewed at the Conclusion of Fixed Cycles.
- How These Persons are to Be Answered, Who Find Fault with the Creation of Man on the Score of Its Recent Date.
- Of the Revolution of the Ages, Which Some Philosophers Believe Will Bring All Things Round Again, After a Certain Fixed Cycle, to the Same Order and Form as at First.
- Of the Creation of the Human Race in Time, and How This Was Effected Without Any New Design or Change of Purpose on God’s Part.
- Whether We are to Believe that God, as He Has Always Been Sovereign Lord, Has Always Had Creatures Over Whom He Exercised His Sovereignty; And in What Sense We Can Say that the Creature Has Always Been, and Yet Cannot Say It is Co-Eternal.
- How We are to Understand God’s Promise of Life Eternal, Which Was Uttered Before the “Eternal Times.”
- What Defence is Made by Sound Faith Regarding God’s Unchangeable Counsel and Will, Against the Reasonings of Those Who Hold that the Works of God are Eternally Repeated in Revolving Cycles that Restore All Things as They Were.
- Against Those Who Assert that Things that are Infinite Cannot Be Comprehended by the Knowledge of God.
- Of Worlds Without End, or Ages of Ages.
- Of the Impiety of Those Who Assert that the Souls Which Enjoy True and Perfect Blessedness, Must Yet Again and Again in These Periodic Revolutions Return to Labor and Misery.
- That There Was Created at First But One Individual, and that the Human Race Was Created in Him.
- That God Foreknew that the First Man Would Sin, and that He at the Same Time Foresaw How Large a Multitude of Godly Persons Would by His Grace Be Translated to the Fellowship of the Angels.
- Of the Nature of the Human Soul Created in the Image of God.
- Whether the Angels Can Be Said to Be the Creators of Any, Even the Least Creature.
- That God Alone is the Creator of Every Kind of Creature, Whatever Its Nature or Form.
- Of that Opinion of the Platonists, that the Angels Were Themselves Indeed Created by God, But that Afterwards They Created Man’s Body.
- That the Whole Plenitude of the Human Race Was Embraced in the First Man, and that God There Saw the Portion of It Which Was to Be Honored and Rewarded, and that Which Was to Be Condemned and Punished.