The Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians: Long Version
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The Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians: Long Version
The Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians: Long Version
Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the [Church] blessed in the grace of God the Father, in Jesus Christ our Savior, in whom I salute the Church which is at Magnesia, near the Mæander, and wish it abundance of happiness in God the Father, and in Jesus Christ.
Chapter I.—Reason of writing the epistle.
Having been informed of your godly love, so well-ordered, I rejoiced greatly, and determined to commune with you in the faith of Jesus Christ. For as one who has been thought worthy of a divine and desirable name, in those bonds which I bear about, I commend the Churches, in which I pray for a union both of the flesh and spirit of Jesus Christ, “who is the Savior of all men, but specially of them that believe;” by whose blood ye were redeemed; by whom ye have known God, or rather have been known by Him; in whom enduring, ye shall escape all the assaults of this world: for “He is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which ye are able.”
=Chapter II.—I rejoice in your messengers.
Since, then, I have had the privilege of seeing you, through Damas your most worthy bishop, and through your worthy presbyters Bassus and Apollonius, and through my fellow-servant the deacon Sotio, whose friendship may I ever enjoy, inasmuch as he, by the grace of God, is subject to the bishop and presbytery, in the law of Jesus Christ, [I now write to you].
Chapter III.—Honor your youthful bishop.
Now it becomes you also not to despise the age of your bishop, but to yield him all reverence, according to the will of God the Father, as I have known even holy presbyters do, not having regard to the manifest youth [of their bishop], but to his knowledge in God; inasmuch as “not the ancient are [necessarily] wise, nor do the aged understand prudence; but there is a spirit in men.” For Daniel the wise, at twelve years of age, became possessed of the divine Spirit, and convicted the elders, who in vain carried their grey hairs, of being false accusers, and of lusting after the beauty of another man’s wife. Samuel also, when he was but a little child, reproved Eli, who was ninety years old, for giving honor to his sons rather than to God. In like manner, Jeremiah also received this message from God, “Say not, I am a child.” Solomon too, and Josiah, [exemplified the same thing.] The former, being made king at twelve years of age, gave that terrible and difficult judgment in the case of the two women concerning their children. The latter, coming to the throne when eight years old cast down the altars and temples [of the idols], and burned down the groves, for they were dedicated to demons, and not to God. And he slew the false priests, as the corrupters and deceivers of men, and not the worshippers of the Deity. Wherefore youth is not to be despised when it is devoted to God. But he is to be despised who is of a wicked mind, although he be old, and full of wicked days. Timothy the Christ-bearer was young, but hear what his teacher writes to him: “Let no man despise thy youth, but be thou an example of the believers in word and in conduct.” It is becoming, therefore, that ye also should be obedient to your bishop, and contradict him in nothing; for it is a fearful thing to contradict any such person. For no one does [by such conduct] deceive him that is visible, but does [in reality] seek to mock Him that is invisible, who, however, cannot be mocked by any one. And every such act has respect not to man, but to God. For God says to Samuel, “They have not mocked thee, but Me.” And Moses declares, “For their murmuring is not against us, but against the Lord God.” No one of those has, [in fact,] remained unpunished, who rose up against their superiors. For Dathan and Abiram did not speak against the law, but against Moses, and were cast down alive into Hades. Korah also, and the two hundred and fifty who conspired with him against Aaron, were destroyed by fire. Absalom, again, who had slain his brother, became suspended on a tree, and had his evil-designing heart thrust through with darts. In like manner was Abeddadan beheaded for the same reason. Uzziah, when he presumed to oppose the priests and the priesthood, was smitten with leprosy. Saul also was dishonored, because he did not wait for Samuel the high priest. It behooves you, therefore, also to reverence your superiors.
Chapter IV.—Some wickedly act independently of the bishop.
It is fitting, then, not only to be called Christians, but to be so in reality. For it is not the being called so, but the being really so, that renders a man blessed. To those who indeed talk of the bishop, but do all things without him, will He who is the true and first Bishop, and the only High Priest by nature, declare, “Why call ye Me Lord, and do not the things which I say?” For such persons seem to me not possessed of a good conscience, but to be simply dissemblers and hypocrites.
Chapter V.—Death is the fate of all such.
Seeing, then, all things have an end, and there is set before us life upon our observance [of God’s precepts], but death as the result of disobedience, and every one, according to the choice he makes, shall go to his own place, let us flee from death, and make choice of life. For I remark, that two different characters are found among men—the one true coin, the other spurious. The truly devout man is the right kind of coin, stamped by God Himself. The ungodly man, again, is false coin, unlawful, spurious, counterfeit, wrought not by God, but by the devil. I do not mean to say that there are two different human natures, but that there is one humanity, sometimes belonging to God, and sometimes to the devil. If any one is truly religious, he is a man of God; but if he is irreligious, he is a man of the devil, made such, not by nature, but by his own choice. The unbelieving bear the image of the prince of wickedness. The believing possess the image of their Prince, God the Father, and Jesus Christ, through whom, if we are not in readiness to die for the truth into His passion, His life is not in us.
Chapter VI.—Preserve harmony.
Since therefore I have, in the persons before mentioned, beheld the whole multitude of you in faith and love, I exhort you to study to do all things with a divine harmony, while your bishop presides in the place of God, and your presbyters in the place of the assembly of the apostles, along with your deacons, who are most dear to me, and are entrusted with the ministry of Jesus Christ. He, being begotten by the Father before the beginning of time, was God the Word, the only-begotten Son, and remains the same for ever; for “of His kingdom there shall be no end,” says Daniel the prophet. Let us all therefore love one another in harmony, and let no one look upon his neighbor according to the flesh, but in Christ Jesus. Let nothing exist among you which may divide you; but be ye united with your bishop, being through him subject to God in Christ.
Chapter VII.—Do nothing without the bishop and presbyters.
As therefore the Lord does nothing without the Father, for says He, “I can of mine own self do nothing,” so do ye, neither presbyter, nor deacon, nor layman, do anything without the bishop. Nor let anything appear commendable to you which is destitute of his approval. For every such thing is sinful, and opposed [to the will of] God. Do ye all come together into the same place for prayer? Let there be one common supplication, one mind, one hope, with faith unblameable in Christ Jesus, than which nothing is more excellent. Do ye all, as one man, run together into the temple of God, as unto one altar, to one Jesus Christ, the High Priest of the unbegotten God.
Chapter VIII.—Caution against false doctrines.
Be not deceived with strange doctrines, “nor give heed to fables and endless genealogies,” and things in which the Jews make their boast. “Old things are passed away: behold, all things have become new.” For if we still live according to the Jewish law, and the circumcision of the flesh, we deny that we have received grace. For the most divine prophets lived according to Jesus Christ. On this account also they were persecuted, being inspired by grace to fully convince the unbelieving that there is one God, the Almighty, who has manifested Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who is His Word, not spoken, but essential. For He is not the voice of an articulate utterance, but a substance begotten by divine power, who has in all things pleased Him that sent Him.
Chapter IX.—Let us live with Christ.
If, then, those who were conversant with the ancient Scriptures came to newness of hope, expecting the coming of Christ, as the Lord teaches us when He says, “If ye had believed Moses, ye would have believed Me, for he wrote of Me;” and again, “Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it, and was glad; for before Abraham was, I am;” how shall we be able to live without Him? The prophets were His servants, and foresaw Him by the Spirit, and waited for Him as their Teacher, and expected Him as their Lord and Savior, saying, “He will come and save us.” Let us therefore no longer keep the Sabbath after the Jewish manner, and rejoice in days of idleness; for “he that does not work, let him not eat.” For say the [holy] oracles, “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread.” But let every one of you keep the Sabbath after a spiritual manner, rejoicing in meditation on the law, not in relaxation of the body, admiring the workmanship of God, and not eating things prepared the day before, nor using lukewarm drinks, and walking within a prescribed space, nor finding delight in dancing and plaudits which have no sense in them. And after the observance of the Sabbath, let every friend of Christ keep the Lord’s Day as a festival, the resurrection-day, the queen and chief of all the days [of the week]. Looking forward to this, the prophet declared, “To the end, for the eighth day,” on which our life both sprang up again, and the victory over death was obtained in Christ, whom the children of perdition, the enemies of the Savior, deny, “whose god is their belly, who mind earthly things,” who are “lovers of pleasure, and not lovers of God, having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof.” These make merchandise of Christ, corrupting His word, and giving up Jesus to sale: they are corrupters of women, and covetous of other men’s possessions, swallowing up wealth insatiably; from whom may ye be delivered by the mercy of God through our Lord Jesus Christ!
Chapter X.—Beware of Judaizing.
Let us not, therefore, be insensible to His kindness. For were He to reward us according to our works, we should cease to be. For “if Thou, Lord, shalt mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?” Let us therefore prove ourselves worthy of that name which we have received. For whosoever is called by any other name besides this, he is not of God; for he has not received the prophecy which speaks thus concerning us: “The people shall be called by a new name, which the Lord shall name them, and shall be a holy people.” This was first fulfilled in Syria; for “the disciples were called Christians at Antioch,” when Paul and Peter were laying the foundations of the Church. Lay aside, therefore, the evil, the old, the corrupt leaven, and be ye changed into the new leaven of grace. Abide in Christ, that the stranger may not have dominion over you. It is absurd to speak of Jesus Christ with the tongue, and to cherish in the mind a Judaism which has now come to an end. For where there is Christianity there cannot be Judaism. For Christ is one, in whom every nation that believes, and every tongue that confesses, is gathered unto God. And those that were of a stony heart have become the children of Abraham, the friend of God; and in his seed all those have been blessed who were ordained to eternal life in Christ.
Chapter XI.—I write these things to warn you.
These things [I address to you], my beloved, not that I know any of you to be in such a state; but, as less than any of you, I desire to guard you beforehand, that ye fall not upon the hooks of vain doctrine, but that you may rather attain to a full assurance in Christ, who was begotten by the Father before all ages, but was afterwards born of the Virgin Mary without any intercourse with man. He also lived a holy life, and healed every kind of sickness and disease among the people, and wrought signs and wonders for the benefit of men; and to those who had fallen into the error of polytheism He made known the one and only true God, His Father, and underwent the passion, and endured the cross at the hands of the Christ-killing Jews, under Pontius Pilate the governor and Herod the king. He also died, and rose again, and ascended into the heavens to Him that sent Him, and is sat down at His right hand, and shall come at the end of the world, with His Father’s glory, to judge the living and the dead, and to render to every one according to his works. He who knows these things with a full assurance, and believes them, is happy; even as ye are now the lovers of God and of Christ, in the full assurance of our hope, from which may no one of us ever be turned aside!
Chapter XII.—Ye are superior to me.
May I enjoy you in all respects, if indeed I be worthy! For though I am bound, I am not worthy to be compared to one of you that are at liberty. I know that ye are not puffed up, for ye have Jesus in yourselves. And all the more when I commend you, I know that ye cherish modesty of spirit; as it is written, “The righteous man is his own accuser;” and again, “Declare thou first thine iniquities, that thou mayest be justified;” and again, “When ye shall have done all things that are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants;” “for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God.” For says [the Scripture], “God be merciful to me a sinner.” Therefore those great ones, Abraham and Job, styled themselves “dust and ashes before God. And David says, “Who am I before Thee, O Lord, that Thou hast glorified me hitherto?” And Moses, who was “the meekest of all men,” saith to God, “I am of a feeble voice, and of a slow tongue.” Be ye therefore also of a humble spirit, that ye may be exalted; for “he that abaseth himself shall be exalted, and he that exalteth himself shall be abased.”
Chapter XIII.—Be established in faith and unity.
Study, therefore, to be established in the doctrines of the Lord and the apostles, that so all things, whatsoever ye do, may prosper, both in the flesh and spirit, in faith and love, with your most admirable bishop, and the well-compacted spiritual crown of your presbytery, and the deacons who are according to God. Be ye subject to the bishop, and to one another, as Christ to the Father, that there may be a unity according to God among you.
Chapter XIV.—Your prayers requested.
Knowing as I do that ye are full of all good, I have but briefly exhorted you in the love of Jesus Christ. Be mindful of me in your prayers, that I may attain to God; and of the Church which is in Syria, of whom I am not worthy to be called bishop. For I stand in need of your united prayer in God, and of your love, that the Church which is in Syria may be deemed worthy, by your good order, of being edified in Christ.
The Ephesians from Smyrna (whence I also write to you), who are here for the glory of God, as ye also are, who have in all things refreshed me, salute you, as does also Polycarp. The rest of the Churches, in honor of Jesus Christ, also salute you. Fare ye well in harmony, ye who have obtained the inseparable Spirit, in Christ Jesus, by the will of God.
- ↑ Literally, “according to God.”
- ↑ 1 Tim. iv. 10.
- ↑ Comp. Gal. iv. 9.
- ↑ 1 Cor. x. 13.
- ↑ Literally, “worthy of God.”
- ↑ Literally, “worthy of God.”
- ↑ Literally, “whom may I enjoy.”
- ↑ The apodosis is here wanting in the original, but must evidently be supplied in some such way as above. (See note in The Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians: Short Version.)
- ↑ Job xxxii. 8, 9.
- ↑ Susanna (Apoc.).
- ↑ 1 Sam. iii. 1.
- ↑ Jer. i. 7.
- ↑ 1 Kings iii. 16.
- ↑ 2 Kings xxii., xxiii..
- ↑ Susanna 52 (Apoc.).
- ↑ 1 Tim. iv. 12.
- ↑ 1 Sam. viii. 7.
- ↑ Ex. xvi. 8.
- ↑ Num. xvi. 1.
- ↑ Num. xvi. 31.
- ↑ 2 Sam. xviii. 14.
- ↑ Sheba is referred to under this name: see 2 Sam. xx. 22.
- ↑ 2 Chron. xxvi. 20.
- ↑ 1 Sam. xiii. 11.
- ↑ Luke vi. 46.
- ↑ Or, “after the likeness of His passion.”
- ↑ Literally, “in harmony of God.”
- ↑ Literally, “before the ages.”
- ↑ Dan. ii. 44, Dan. vii. 14, 27.
- ↑ John v. 30.
- ↑ Or, “contrary to his judgment.”
- ↑ 1 Tim. i. 4.
- ↑ 2 Cor. v. 17.
- ↑ Some read hupostēsanti, “that gave Him His hypostasis, or substance.”
- ↑ John v. 46.
- ↑ John viii. 56, 58.
- ↑ Isa. xxxv. 4.
- ↑ 2 Thess. iii. 10.
- ↑ Gen. iii. 19.
- ↑ Reference is here made to well-known Jewish opinions and practices with respect to the Sabbath. The Talmud fixes 2000 cubits as the space lawful to be traversed. Philo (De Therap.) refers to the dancing, etc.
- ↑ Ps. vi., Ps. xii. (inscrip.). [N.B.—The reference is to the title of these two psalms, as rendered by the LXX. Eis to telos huper tēs ogdoēs.]
- ↑ Phil. iii. 18, 19.
- ↑ 2 Tim. iii. 4.
- ↑ Literally, “whirlpools of wealth.”
- ↑ Ps. cxxx. 3.
- ↑ Isa. lxii. 2, 12.
- ↑ Acts xi. 26.
- ↑ 1 Cor. v. 7.
- ↑ Or, “enemy.”
- ↑ Matt. iii. 9; Isa. xli. 8; Jas. ii. 23. Some read, “children of God, friends of Abraham.”
- ↑ Gen. xxviii. 14.
- ↑ Acts xiii. 48.
- ↑ i.e., addicted to the error of Judaizing.
- ↑ 2 Tim. iv. 1; Rom. ii. 6.
- ↑ Some read, “of you.”
- ↑ Literally, “are reverent.”
- ↑ Prov. xviii. 17. (LXX).
- ↑ Isa. xliii. 26.
- ↑ Luke xvii. 10.
- ↑ Luke xvi. 15.
- ↑ Luke xviii. 13.
- ↑ Some read, “Jacob.”
- ↑ Gen. xviii. 27; Job xxx. 19.
- ↑ 1 Chron. xvii. 16.
- ↑ Num. xii. 3.
- ↑ Ex. iv. 10.
- ↑ Luke xiv. 11.
- ↑ Literally, “well-woven.”
- ↑ Literally, “of being fed as by a shepherd.”